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Five charging interface standards for electric vehicles

Five charging interface standards for electric vehicles

2018-09-28

Five charging interface standards for electric vehicles


A major dilemma for the popularization of electric vehicles lies in the construction of the charging pile network. At the moment when the national standard has not been issued, major electric vehicle manufacturers have different charging standards, which poses a great obstacle to the "connectivity" of electric vehicles of different brands on the charging network. The technical solutions adopted by each family differ not only in their interfaces, but also in their charging efficiency. If the charging piles are not compatible under the unified standards, it will undoubtedly lead to the low efficiency of charging piles construction, resulting in electric cars becoming luxury toys rather than ordinary homes. First, let's look at the mature charging interface standards around the world. From one side, we can feel the "hidden war" brewing in the country.


1, the Combo


Combo socket, which allows both slow and fast charging of electric vehicles, is the most widely used type of socket in Europe today, including the charging interface developed by audi, BMW, Chrysler, Daimler, ford, general motors, porsche and Volkswagen.


On October 2, 2012, members of the relevant SAE committee voted to approve the revised draft SAE J1772, which became the only formal dc charging standard in the world. The standard was launched to change the status quo of hybrid charging systems and boost consumers' incentives to buy electric vehicles. The standard of dc fast charging based on the revised J1772 is mainly composed of Combo Connector.


Previous versions of the standard (developed in 2010) specify the specification of the basic J1772 connector for ac charging, with a lower charging Level (ac Level 1 for 120V, Level 2 for 240V). The basic connector is already widely used today and is compatible with the nissan leaf, Chevrolet volt and mitsubishi i-miev electric vehicles. In addition to all the original functions, the Combo Connector in the new J1772 standard formulated in 2012 has two more pins, which can be used for dc quick charging, but cannot be compatible with the old electric vehicle currently produced.


Advantages: Combo Connector the biggest advantage is that the future on their new models, auto makers could use a socket, not only suitable for small size of the first generation of ac Connector, also applies to the second generation of large size Combo Connector, which can provide two kinds of dc and ac current, respectively in two different charging speed.


Disadvantages: quick charging mode requires charging station to provide up to 500 volts and 200 amps.


2, CHAdeMO


CHAdeMO, short for CHArge DE Move, is a CHAdeMO socket with support from Japan's nissan and mitsubishi motors. This dc quick charging socket can provide charging capacity up to 50kw.


Electric vehicle models supporting the charging standard include: nissan leaf, mitsubishi Outlander plug-in hybrid, Citroen c-zero, Peugeot iON, Citroen Berlingo, Peugeot Partner, mitsubishi i-miev, mitsubishi minicab-miev, mitsubishi minicab-miev truck, Honda fit electric version, Mazda DEMIO EV, subaru Stella plug-in hybrid, nissan eEV200, etc. It should be noted that both the nissan leaf and the mitsubishi i-miev electric cars have two different charging outlets. The other is a connector that applies the CHAdeMO standard in Japan.


The rapid charging method adopted by CHAdeMO is shown in the figure. The current is controlled by the CAN bus signal of the car. That is, while monitoring the battery state, calculate the current value required for charging in real time, and send the notification to the charger through the communication line; The fast charger receives the current command from the car in a timely manner and provides the current according to the specified value.


The battery management system not only monitors the battery condition, but also controls the current in real time. It fully realizes various functions required for quick and safe charging and ensures that charging is not limited by the battery universality. In Japan, 1,154 quick chargers have been installed according to the CHAdeMO standard. In the us, the CHAdeMO charging station has also spread its net widely, with new data from the us department of energy showing that there are 1,344 existing CHAdeMO communication quick charging stations in the country.


Advantages: outside the data control line, CHAdeMO also USES CAN bus as the communication interface. Due to its superior noise resistance and high error-detection ability, communication stability and reliability are high. Its good charging safety record has been recognized by the industry.


Cons: CHAdeMO's original charging output was 100 kilowatts, and the connector was bulky, but the output in the charging car was just 50 kilowatts.


3. Tesla


Tesla has its own battery standard, which claims to be capable of running more than 300 kilometers in 30 minutes. Therefore, the maximum capacity of the charging socket is up to 120kw and the maximum current is up to 80A.


Tesla already has 908 supercharger stations in the us. In order to enter China, tesla has established seven supercharging stations in China, including three in Shanghai, two in Beijing, one in hangzhou and one in shenzhen. In addition, in order to better integrate into various regions, tesla plans to give up control of charging standards and adopt national standards of various countries, as it has done in China.


Then there is the problem, although the favorable effect of tesla's doing so is that tesla owners can use the huge charging network set up by the Chinese government. Tesla boosts product sales The problem is, owners who have already bought a tesla model, how to charge it after the standards change. If there is no solution. The contradiction tesla owners face is: first, the charging station can only be built before the standard changes, and the charging convenience will not be improved over time. The second is to ask tesla to return the car.


Advantages: advanced technology, high charging efficiency.


Disadvantages: contrary to national standards, it is difficult to increase sales without compromise. Compromising charging efficiency would be a dilemma.


4, CCS


In an effort to change the chaotic state of charging interface standards, eight major U.S. and German manufacturers -- ford, general motors, Chrysler, audi, BMW, mercedes-benz, Volkswagen and porsche -- introduced the joint charging system in 2012. The Combined Charging System, or CCS standard.


The "combined charging system" can unify all the current charging interfaces, so that one interface can complete the four modes of single-phase ac charging, fast three-phase ac charging, domestic dc charging and overspeed dc charging.


SAE has selected the joint charging system as its standard, and in addition to SAE, the European association of automobile manufacturers (ACEA) has announced the selection of the joint charging system as the dc/ac charging interface for all plug-in electric vehicles sold in Europe starting in 2017. Since Germany and China unified electric vehicle charging standards last year, China has joined the European and American team, bringing unprecedented opportunities for the development of electric vehicles in China. Zinuo 1E, audi A3 e-tron, baic E150EV, BMW i3, tengshi, Volkswagen e-up, long and easy moving EV and Smart EV all belong to the "CCS" standard camp.


Pros: three German automakers, BMW, Daimler and Volkswagen, will invest more in electric vehicles in China, and the CCS standard may be more favorable to China.


Cons: electric cars that support the "CCS" standard are either selling less or just starting to ship.


5, GB/T 20234


China in 2006, issued the electric conduction charging coupler with plug and socket, vehicle and vehicle jack general requirements "(GB/T20234-2006), the detailed rules on the charging current national standards for the 16 a, 32 a, 250 a and 400 a dc link classification, main draw lessons from the international electrotechnical commission (IEC) standard proposed by 2003, but this standard does not charge the connection pin number, the physical size of the interface and the interface definition. In 2011, China introduced the recommended GB/ t20234-2011 standard, replacing some contents in GB/ t20234-2006, which stipulated that the ac rated voltage shall not exceed 690V, frequency 50Hz, and rated current shall not exceed 250A. The rated dc voltage shall not exceed 1000V and the rated current shall not exceed 400A.


Pros: more charging interface parameters are calibrated in detail compared to the 2006 gb.


Cons: standards are still not perfect. In addition, it is only recommended standards, not mandatory.


Each country car company already realized gradually, "standard" is the key factor that controls electric vehicle development prospect. We have also seen global charging standards gradually move from "diversification" to "centralization" in recent years. However, to truly achieve the unified charging standard, in addition to the interface standard, the current communication standard is also needed. The former is related to the fitting of the joint, while the latter affects whether the plug can be charged when inserted. There is still a long way to go before ev charging standards are fully implemented, and companies and governments need to take a more "open stance" before electric cars can have a future.


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